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Bridge Maintenance Scheme:

Based on the inspection report, bridge maintenance scheme including remedial measures shall be framed after a detailed inspection. The above includes in-depth analysis, cause of defects, deficiencies, construction faults or any other effects. After the finalization of maintenance criteria, the maintenance team will prepare the necessary drawing for maintenance work and will submit these to the higher authority for approval. The maintenance team or specialized agency shall execute the job after getting approval from the concerned department.

Bridge maintenance related photo

In light of the condition assessment, each and every defect shall be categorized based on the priorities of maintenance or attention required. 

Urgent:

Jobs marked as Urgent priority shall be attended urgently as this may affect the full component of structure/system as well as the project.

Special: 

works shall be taken as special attention next order of priority for which required detailed investigation and findings.

Recurrent: 

Next to special in order of priority where the defects which occur recurrently. Recurring work is periodic maintenance work and overlaying, painting, replacing etc. are marked as a recurrent category.          

Routine: 

Defects which are attended routinely under the above priority category to exaggerate the life of structures as well as maintain the whole project. 

Bridge Maintenance Planning and Procedure:

To finalize the Bridge maintenance work, the concerned Engineer or team will study the defects/distress in details recorded during the inspection, assess the reason of defects, check structural adequacy if any, check construction fault if any, suitable maintenance scheme etc. In general, IRC- SP 37:1991 “Guidelines for Evaluation of Load Carrying Capacity of Bridges” shall be followed for the load-carrying capacity of the bridge. The detail procedures of the maintenance scheme are as follows:

  • Study and Summarize the defects/ distress recorded during the inspection
  • Cause of defects
  • Prepare the priority list of the defects
  • Check the structural adequacy if any after studying the design calculation
  • Consult the experienced designer/agency if required
  • Check construction inadequacy if any
  • Finalize a suitable maintenance scheme or consultant’s recommendation 
  • Prepare drawing or sketch for maintenance work 
  • Prepare safety norms 
  • Prepare methodology
  • Prepare Traffic diversion plan or blockade if required
  • Prepare a comprehensive Maintenance Report

Bridge Maintenance Criteria and Necessary Action:

On approval of the bridge maintenance scheme, the maintenance works shall be executed by the maintenance team or specialized agency appointed through tender.

Waterway:

Abnormal scour: 

  • Record the pattern of scouring 
  • Find the cause of such scour
  • Any formation of the island to be removed
  • Inform higher authority for remedial measure

Waterway_scouring

Obstruction in the waterway: 

  • Obstruction to be removed completely

Erosion of bank, pitching:

  • Repair of pitching
  • New/extra pitching if required

Bridge Foundation and Substructure:

Settlement of foundation:

  • Record the settlement and compare with the tolerance limit
  • Check design adequacy for excess settlement
  • Strengthening of existing foundation if possible

Scour at pier location:

  • Record the pattern of scouring, 
  • Find the cause of such scour
  • Formation of the island to be removed
  • Inform higher authority for remedial measure

Cracks:

  • Crack needs immediate attention to prevent further damage and deterioration
  • Cementitious/epoxy-based grouting by the nozzle 

Damage due to the impact of vessels:

  • Repair, Cementitious grouting by the nozzle

Spalling of concrete:

  • Chipping of local surface and remove all the loose material
  • Replacement with high strength cementitious grouting 
  • Repaired with micro-concrete/epoxy mortar/polymer mortar depending upon the severity of the damage
  • Surface to be repaired by plastering

concrete deterioration

Porous Surface/Honeycomb:

  • Surface to be cleaned, find out the cause of leakage
  • Epoxy-based cement grouting by the nozzle
  • The surface to be repaired by plastering etc.

Exposed reinforcement and rust staining:

  • Chipping of local surface
  • Remove loose material 
  • Cleaning of reinforcement
  • Application of zinc-based epoxy paint
  • Adding extra reinforcement by welding to make up the steel area
  • High strength cementitious grouting
  • Surface to be repaired by plastering etc.

Wet spots and Vegetation growth:

  • Wet surface to be cleaned
  • Find the cause of leakage
  • Close the leakage by epoxy-based cement grouting by nozzle or laying of waterproofing layers etc.
  • Surface to be repaired by plastering etc.

Movement/deformation:

  • Record the movement if any within the tolerance limit, check design adequacy for excess movement.

Bridge Superstructure:

Deflection< L/350:

  • Routine check-up of riding comfort for any unusual deflection and check condition is becoming worst, recommend load test if required.

Deflection> L/350:

  • Strengthening by providing additional member
  • Epoxy-based grouting by the nozzle.

Cracks, Spalling of the concrete and Honeycomb:

  • Same, as mentioned in the bridge maintenance scheme for the foundation.

Joints between segments:

  • For minor defects, it is to be repaired by grouting etc.
  • Structural adequacy to be checked for major defects
  • Consult with the specialized agency if required
  • Strengthening of external prestressing, and high strength cementitious grouting etc. as per approved methodology if required.

Prestressing steel:

  • Defect in HDPC pipes: To be repaired by Tedlar tape
  • Voids in the grout, corrosion protection in strands span: To be vacuum grouted recommended by a specialized agency
  • Excessive corrosion, loss, damage, etc.: To be replaced as per the recommendation of specialized agency

Anchorage:

  • Grout cap, Slip, distortion, Cracks in concrete, Cracks in Anchorage, Corrosion: To be repaired, to be painted, to be grouted or to be replaced as per the recommendation of specialized agency

Bearing:

  • All Bearings needs periodic maintenance such as Cleaning, Greasing/Oiling and Paintings. 
  • Minor defects (surface cracks, tears, etc.): To be repaired as recommended by specialized agency or manufacture 
  • Major defects, (splits between elastomer and laminates, tears, bulging, deformation, etc.): To be replaced
  • Replacement of bearing includes lifting the superstructure and lowering after replacement.

Bridge Maintenance_Bearing

Wearing Coat:

  • Potholes any extent: Repair by filling of the same material
  • Excessive cracking, bulging, Revealing any kind: Renewal coat if necessary
  • Removal of existing damaged wearing coat includes sealing of crack/porous concrete over deck slab and approach slab with Epoxy mortar/Epoxy injection through nipples if any.

Concrete Crash Barrier/Railing:

  • Cracks any type: Sealing of cracks
  • Chipping of local surface, remove loose material, cleaning of reinforcement, adding extra reinforcement by welding, high strength cementitious grouting, replace of damage railing, painting etc.
  • Existing RCC Railing shall be replaced with steel pipe railings
  • Railings shall be repaired with a better grade of concrete/micro-concrete after application of a bond coat.
  • Barricading shall be provided to prevent any mishap.

Bridge Maintenance_Bearing

Expansion Joints:

  • Cleaning of Expansion Joints
  • Chipping of the local surface if required
  • Remove loose material, cleaning of reinforcement and structural steel, Adding extra reinforcement/plate by welding
  • High strength cementitious/epoxy grouting, etc. as per the recommendation of a specialized agency.

Drainage Spout:

  • Choked drainage spout to be cleaned
  • Any type of damage, Anchor bolts to be replaced

Approach Slab:

  • Any type of damage should be repaired by high strength cementitious grouting after removing wearing course.
  • For any type of settlement applying wearing coat as necessary or replacement wherever necessary

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Summary
Bridge Maintenance Planning and Procedure
Article Name
Bridge Maintenance Planning and Procedure
Description
Based on the inspection report, bridge maintenance scheme including remedial measures shall be framed after a detailed inspection. The above includes in-depth analysis, cause of defects, deficiencies, construction faults or any other effects.
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Construction Civil
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